Ocd research paper

Comorbidity with anxiety disorders is quite high, ranging from 25 to 60%, with the highest frequencies for specific phobias, followed by social phobia and panic disorder.It appears that involving spouses and other family members in ERP leads to significant gains in OCD symptoms, mood state, and social and occupational functioning compared with unassisted treatment.

So it is possible that this increased use of energy is the cause of OCD. (7).Few studies of psychosurgery outcome for patients who have failed to respond to medication or behavior therapy exist.Models emphasizing the appraisal of threat form the backdrop for most of the cognitive theories of OCD.

The idea behind exposure is that anxiety will go down after being in long enough contact with what the person fears.The basal ganglia stores these programs and provides a gating mechanism for their release.Thus, the core assumption of this model is that OCD symptoms are efforts to neutralize or ameliorate the appraisal of responsibility for harm.More active strategies like compulsive behaviors are needed to prevent harm or restore a feeling of safety.Meta-analytic comparisons among the SRIs show a preference for clomipramine, although at least one such study was equivocal on this issue.Patients typically wait 7 to 8 years after the onset of symptoms before seeking treatment.

Obsession is defined as unwanted, recurrent, and disturbing thoughts that a person cannot stop.The downside is that less than 20% of those treated end with no OCD symptoms.These thoughts are unable to be suppressed and can result in severe anxiety.Dosage ranges have been partly tested for fluoxetine, with higher doses (up to 60 mg) producing better results, but additional research is needed to identify optimal dosage ranges for the SRIs.In another test of attentional processing, it has also been reported that after successful treatment, OCD patients no longer showed attentional bias toward contamination items in a dichotic listening task.The first part of the two-stage theory posits that an otherwise neutral event acquires the capacity to provoke fear because of its pairing with an aversive stimulus, much as a dog phobia might develop in someone who has been bitten.

Ocd research paper conclusion - Pros of Using Paper

The primary diagnostic criteria are the existence of obsessions or compulsions, some degree of recognition of the irrationality of the behavior, and significant interference with everyday functioning.The serotonin is usually cleaned out of the synapses by enzymes located in the brain. (6) It has been found that drugs that increase the levels of serotonin in the brain reduce the OCD symptoms.

As noted earlier in discussing cognitive characteristics of OCD, obsessive-compulsive patients are thought to make abnormally high estimates of the probability of bad things happening to them.Biology 202 2002 Third Paper On Serendip Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: What it is, cause and treatment Tina Chen.

These are repetitive, ritualized behaviors that are done to alleviate the anxiety caused by the obsession. (2) The most common obsessions are fear of contamination, fear of causing harm to another, fear of making a mistake, fear of behaving in a socially unacceptable manner, need for symmetry or exactness, and excessive doubt.With regard to the amount of symptom improvement, the average degree of benefit from ERP ranges from 40 to 75 %.Fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, and sertraline are different from clomipramine because they primarily affect only serotonin, so they are called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs).Since clomipramine affects other nuerotransmittors, there are more side effects than SSRIs.In order for cognitive therapy to develop, however, research must identify which cognitions to target and how best to measure them.Response prevention reduces rituals more than it does obsessions.The patient intentionally and willingly deals with the feared.

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Numerous studies have shown that using from 10 to 20 sessions of ERP produces significant improvement in symptoms.Report On Bullying, research paper on error detection and correction.If the obsessive-compulsive person qualms and ponders when the.At least moderate improvement occurs with SRIs in 55 to 70% of previously untreated patients.However, severity of avoidance behavior may be associated with poor ERP outcome.Inc., 1985 Sanberg, Paul R., Klaus-Peter Ossenkopp and Martin Kavaliers.Theorists also suggest that neutralization may develop only when other thought control efforts fail.

When the ritual is prevented, habituation of anxiety will eventually occur.The need to diagnose OCD early leads to the question of whether or not OCD is an inherited disorder.

While some studies have shown a slightly higher percentage of women than men with OCD, other studies have failed to find this difference.Studies of genetic involvement in OCD have been inconsistent.Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Research Topics: This page requires Java: DISORDER RESEARCH: Essential Reading.These beliefs are characterized by an exaggerated sense that one is responsible for harm to oneself or to others and that one must act to prevent it.Only one controlled trial of group ERP has been reported in the literature, however.OCD is caused through its persistence. (Mavissakalian 15) And maybe this is why.The most prominent cognitive theory of OCD was proposed by Salkovskis in 1985.

On the basis of evidence for basal ganglia involvement, some investigators postulate that OCD is a basal ganglia disorder.These researchers reported on two controlled trials that used this approach.Some investigators have observed cognitive changes after ERP treatment, especially with respect to the overestimation of risk.In addition to level of insight, other issues remain unsolved.Other PET scan studies have found increased metabolic activity in the striatum during exposure among OCD cleaners, but reduced metabolic activity among OCD checkers.Research on the six cognitive characteristics associated with OCD identified by international experts in the field is an obvious place to start this process.